About the Science
Photo Credit: Mark Rauzon
Supporting Research in the North Pacific
The marine ecosystems off Alaska (the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, and Arctic Ocean) are some of the most productive regions in the world, supporting abundant populations of fish, seabirds, and marine mammals, and providing over 40% of U.S. commercial fish landings. Yet these marine environments are changing both spatially and temporally. An ice-free Arctic Ocean, for example, has now become a plausible reality. Resource managers must have the knowledge necessary to protect and conserve these rich and biologically diverse ecosystems over the long term. This will require a comprehensive understanding of their components and natural variability, and how they are affected by human activities, especially commercial fisheries. Through NPRB supported research, there is opportunity to better understand and forecast marine ecosystem change, and how these changes impact fisheries dynamics.
NPRB recognizes three overarching premises with respect to broad ecosystem change. They provide the scientific foundation for specific NPRB research needs and strategies.
Natural variability in the physical environment influences trophic structure and overall productivity.
Human impacts superimpose additional changes, including increased levels of contaminants, habitat alterations, and increased mortality of certain species that may initiate ecosystem changes.
Natural and/or human-induced changes affect people who live and work in the region, forcing adaptation to the changing environment, ecosystem, and management schemes.
NPRB applies these general types of research approaches to each research program.
Integration of natural and social science methods
Multidisciplinary and integrated ecosystem-based research
At the core of NPRB's Science Plan are three scientific foundations that reflect current understanding of large marine ecosystems, the processes that make them so dynamic, and how humans affect and are effected by ecosystem change.
Photo Credit: Bill Scott
Large Marine Ecosystems
The geographic regions that NPRB has identified as specific research regions comprise several large marine ecosystems (LMEs), each having a suite of features (bathymetry, regional wind fields, hydrography, sea ice, circulation, and productivity) within which marine populations have adapted strategies for growth and survival. These regions include the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, and Arctic Ocean—delineations that correspond to similar NOAA's LME descriptions.
Photo Credit: Chris Floyd
Alaska's marine LMEs are interconnected via bathymetric and oceanographic features. However, there are major differences in current structures and sea-ice cover, for example, between them. How atmospheric and climatic conditions influence physical and chemical attributes of each LME provide the foundation for food web dynamics and natural forcing of upper/lower trophic level species. Better understanding of the processes that impact these LMEs must be explored.
Photo Credit: Erik Pallister
How will stakeholders who depend upon marine resources from these LMEs be impacted by ecosystem change? Commercial and subsistence use, livelihoods, and quality of life are all affected by natural and human perturbations of Alaska's marine ecosystems. Changes in species composition, abundance, quality, or distribution can have economic and social impacts, particularly in coastal communities. Research supported by NPRB provides managers and planners with data to address these issues.
Integrated Ecosystem Research—The Ultimate Challenge
NPRB supports large-scale interdisciplinary ecosystem-based research. This requires multiple agency coordination, collaboration, and investigation of a broad suite of research centered on a specific large marine ecosystem. For each Integrated Ecosystem Research Program (IERP) there is a primary research focus, with connections to each NRPB topic area (see below). Since 2002, NPRB has supported a Bering Sea and a Gulf of Alaska IERP. NPRB launched an Arctic IERP in 2016.
Through a competitive proposal process, NPRB supports peer-reviewed scientific research in the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, and the Arctic Ocean ecosystems. There are four scientific programmatic approaches:
NPRB places a priority on research that addresses pressing fishery management issues and important ecosystem information needs. This research can be further subdivided into the following research themes.
Other Research Approaches
Photo Credit: Carl Johnson
Cooperative research with commercial fishing industries and the oil and gas industry provide opportunities to engage with knowledgeable stakeholders who share common initiatives with marine resources and sustainability. Since 2007, NPRB has included a specific call for cooperative research with industry in its annual request for proposals. Industry provide invaluable field experience, practical knowledge and expertise, and platforms for collecting data. They are expert at deploying their gear and are able to increase their efficiencies and lessen their impact on important marine resources.
Photo Credit: Ann Fienup-Riordan
Local & Traditional Knowledge
Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) refers to an array of information, understanding, and wisdom accumulated over time based on experience and often shared within a group or community. This knowledge may be the product of an individual’s time on the land or sea (local knowledge) or accumulated over generations, perpetuated within a culture (traditional knowledge). It may offer new perspectives and paradigms for understanding the marine ecosystem, and greater involvement of those who live and work in the area. LTK is an important piece to each of NPRB's research programs.
Photo Credit: Julia Parrish
NPRB aims to support research that is useful to those who live and work in the regions of study. Effective community involvement provides a substantive role in helping shape NPRB activities—from informing research priorities to program guidance. Community involvement describes not simply the flow of information, but the relationship between communities and NPRB.
The current Science Plan was first conceptualized in 2002 at the time of NPRB's first year of funding. NPRB requested the National Research Council (NRC) to provide advice on the components that would be the foundation for a sound science plan. In 2005, the Science Plan was completed and has since provided NPRB a flexible, comprehensive, long-term approach towards supporting research in the North Pacific. The plan was consistent with enabling legislation, responsive to the mission and goals of NPRB, composed of major research topics, and built upon past and ongoing research programs at the Federal, State, and university levels. For the better part of a decade, the Science Plan continued to provide the research community and industry with clear objectives and focus for important research topic areas. However, as research priorities shift and ecosystem dynamics continue to impact marine resources, NPRB is currently revisiting the Science Plan to better position the organization and the science it supports moving forward.
Over the past decade, NPRB has supported two large Integrated Ecosystem Research Projects (IERPs) and more than 380 individual research projects through the Annual Research Program. The result of this body of research is the production of over 580 peer-reviewed publications. To search our publication library, click on the button below. Users may search by project number, publication title, author, and more.